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The story of black nurses in the UK didn't start with Windrush
Last week, the Office for National Statistics confirmed what many had suspected since the start of this pandemic – black, Asian and minority ethnic people are far more likely to get and die from coronavirus. But it is the scale of difference that is so worrying. Black people are more than four times more likely to die from Covid-19 than white people. Even after taking into account age, underlying health and income factors, they are still almost twice as likely as white people to die from the virus.
The government has promised that a review by Public Health England into how ethnicity affects vulnerability to coronavirus will be published by the end of May. It can’t come soon enough: among frontline NHS and social care workers, the difference is all too stark: despite accounting for just 20% of the workforce, 94% of doctors and 71% of nurses who have died from Covid-19 were black, Asian and minority ethnic. It has prompted NHS England to recommend risk assessments for BAME frontline staff to reduce their exposure to the virus.   read more

From The Guardian - UK

Factors affecting health literacy among immigrants
Background:
Health literacy helps individuals makes informed decisions, which contributes to an increase in individuals’ health and empowerment. Existing studies report that immigrant populations are one of the most vulnerable social groups which experience serious health disparities and poor health outcomes, such as a high level of morbidity due to a lack of health literacy. However, there is little attention paid to contributing factors which lead to health disparities among immigrant populations. This study aims to address this gap in the literature through a systematic review of relevant literature.
Methods:
A systematic review of nine databases including RISS, DBPia, KISS, Korea National Assembly Library database, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and Cochrane Library was conducted. English and Korean publications were searched using keywords (Health Literacy, Immigrants, Minority, Ethnic Group, married migrant women)... read more

From European Journal of Public Healty - Oxford Academy - UK

Health literacy - Impact
What is health literacy?
There are many definitions of health literacy available, the national health literacy action action plan defines health literacy as:
"Health literacy is about people having enough knowledge, understanding, skills and confidence to use health information, to be active partners in their care, and to navigate health and social care systems"
Health literacy relates to a range of communications including, written, spoken and visual. All health and social care staff in Scotland have a responsibility to support health literacy.   read more

From The Health Literacy Place - NHS Education for Scotland - UK

Meeting the health literacy need of immigrant populations
Abstract
Immigrant populations are vulnerable to serious health disparities, with many immigrants experiencing significantly worse health outcomes, such as higher rates of morbidity and mortality, than other segments of society. Immigrants disproportionately suffer from heart attacks, cancer, diabetes, strokes, HIV/AIDS, and many other serious diseases. These health risks demand effective health communication to help immigrants recognize, minimize, and respond effectively to potential health problems. Yet, while the need for effective communication about health risks is particularly acute, it is also tremendously complicated to communicate effectively with these vulnerable populations....  read more

From ResearchGate - UK

Interventions for improving health literacy in migrants

  • To assess the effectiveness of interventions for improving health literacy in migrants.
  • To assess whether female or male migrants may respond differently to the identified interventions.

Such interventions must address health literacy either as a comprehensive construct or at least one of its four health information processing steps (access, understand, appraise, apply). However, we do not aim to equate general health literacy interventions that include a range of activities targeted to all of the four health information processing steps with interventions that aim to improve only one step (e.g. understand). We aim instead to create a comprehensive picture of the effect of health literacy interventions by applying the integrated model as an umbrella framework for a deductive analysis of the four steps of health information processing..... read more

From Cochrane - UK

Culture & Health Literacy

Tools for Cross-Cultural Communication and Language Access Can Help Organizations Address Health Literacy and Improve Communication Effectiveness

The ideas people have about health, the languages they use, the health literacy skills they have, and the contexts in which they communicate about health reflect their cultures. Organizations can increase communication effectiveness when they recognize and bridge cultural differences that may contribute to miscommunication...... read more

From Centers of Disease Control and Prevention - UK

Plain Language in Healthcare

  • What is health literacy?
  • Why is health literacy an issue for health communication professionals?
  • Can better communication strategies improve health?
  • Where can I learn more about health literacy?
Literacy is defined most simply as the ability to read and write. We can think of literacy as the ability to understand and communicate information. In this context, it is useful to think of health literacy as the ability to understand and communicate health information.
The Institute of Medicine’s recent report defines health literacy as “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.” ..... read more

From Plainlanguage.gov - USA

Health Literacy as a Contributor to Immigrant
Health Disparities
Abstract
The ability to obtain, understand and use the information needed to make wise health choices is known as health literacy. Low health literacy among members of populations with poor reading skills, limited mastery of the English language, members of ethnic or cultural minorities, and immigrants is likely a major contributor to health disparities in the US (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research 1997). A series of focus groups with East-Asian, African, Central and South American immigrants was conducted to better understand the perceptions of immigrants seeking health care services in an urban North Carolina county. Participants’ responses are reported in terms of cultural competency, patient education, medication compliance, and communication. Implications for improving the health literacy of immigrant populations are discussed. ..... read more

From University of Nevada, Las Vegas - USA

Ask Me 3: Good Questions for Your Good Health
Institute for Healthcare Improvement
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Ask Me 3® is an educational program that encourages patients and families to ask three specific questions of their providers to better understand their health conditions and what they need to do to stay healthy.
  1. What is my main problem?
  2. What do I need to do?
  3. Why is it important for me to do this?

Designed by health literacy experts, Ask Me 3 is intended to help patients become more active members of their health care team, and provide a critical platform to improve communications between patients, families, and health care professionals. ..... read more

From Institute for Healtcare Improvement - USA

 Health Information in Multiple Languages

Use these links to find health information in languages other than English. See our quality guidelines for how we select the links on these pages.
Browse information in multiple languages by health topic. ..... read more

From MedlinePlus - USA

 Health Topics

Read about symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention for over 1000 diseases, illnesses, health conditions and wellness issues. MedlinePlus health topics are regularly reviewed, and links are updated daily.. ..... read more

From MedlinePlus - USA

 What Is the Apgar Score?

The Apgar score is a test given to newborns soon after birth. This test checks a baby's heart rate, muscle tone, and other signs to see if extra medical care or emergency care is needed.
The test is usually given twice: once at 1 minute after birth, and again at 5 minutes after birth. Sometimes, if there are concerns about the baby's condition, the test may be given again. ..... read more

From KidsHealth - USA

Vaccine Preventable Diseases

Vaccination against a range of bacterial and viral diseases is an integral part of communicable disease control world-wide. Vaccination against a specific disease not only reduces the incidence of that disease, it reduces the social and economic burden of the disease on communities. Very high immunisation coverage can lead to complete blocking of transmission for many vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The world-wide eradication of smallpox and the near eradication of polio from many countries provide excellent examples of the role of immunisation in disease control...... read more

From Department of Health - AU

Visualizing health
A Sciantifically Vetted Style Guide for Communicating Health Data

Data can help people make better decisions about their health. But it’s not always clear what sort of presentation will make the most sense to the most people. Visualizing Health contains graphic displays of health information that we’ve validated through research among the general public. Visualizing Health was developed by the University of Michigan, with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation...... read more

From Visualizing Health Project - USA

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